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πŸ“ˆ Chapter IV - Back to the future

Now we're cooking!


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With our model being trained, we can now write another contract function - predict (a 'view' function).


In Warp, 'view' functions are contract functions that do not modify the contract state - instead they return some 'view' of the current contract state.

We will use forecast from the LSTMTimeStep neural network.

This function is specifically designed for time series prediction tasks. It takes a sequence of input values and a specified number of time steps to forecast into the future. The function returns an array of predicted values for the specified number of future time steps based on the input sequence.

The contract's predict function will require passing two parameters:

  1. prices - an array of input prices that will serve as a base for predicting output prices
  2. toPredict- the amount of prices to predict

After validating the input data, contract will map prices to a proper format (same as for the doTrain function - it will calculate diffs and normalize to [0, 1]). The neural network, based on already trained data and the normalized prices will predict toPredict new normalized price diffs.

The result of this prediction needs to be denormalized - and finally - the price diffs added consecutively, starting from the last price from the input.

The forecast function can be called like this:

const view = await contract.viewState({
function: 'predict',
prices: [30000, 30010, 30005, 30020, 30015],
toPredict: 3


Example result:

Float32Array(3) [ 30028.6328125, 30042.02734375, 30057.388671875 ]

The full predict function code:

if (input.function === 'predict') {
// the model has to be trained at least once
if (state.serializedModel === null) {
throw new ContractError('Not enough train data yet!');

// input data validation - prices
const forecastInput = input.prices;
if (forecastInput?.length == 0) {
throw new ContractError('Not enough input prices to forecast')

if (forecastInput.length > 10) {
throw new ContractError('Too many input prices');

// input data validation - toPredict
const toPredict = input.toPredict;
if (toPredict > forecastInput.length) {
throw new ContractError('Too many values to forecast');

// creating network and loading its model from contract's state
const net = createNetwork();

// preparing input prices - same as for 'train' function
const {minDiff, maxDiff, normalizedDiffs} = preparePrices(forecastInput);

// cooking...
const forecastNormalizedDiffs = net.forecast(normalizedDiffs, toPredict);

// denormalizing forecasted diffs
const forecastDiffs = => denormalize(d, minDiff, maxDiff));

// taking the last price from the input...
let lastPrice = forecastInput[forecastInput.length - 1];

// ...and adding the forecasted diffs consecutively
const forecastPrices = => {
lastPrice += diff;
return lastPrice;

return {
result: forecastPrices,

With the contract code ready, we now need to find a way to regularly feed it with price data...