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🧠 Chapter III - No pain, no gain

It's high time to train our network! 💪


"decentralized neural network training, futuristic scene, retro futurism old poster"

You've probably noticed doTrain function in last code listing in previous chapter. This function will be called every 5th price package sent to our contract and will use those new prices to continue to train the network (this process is called "incremental learning").

To build and train our network we will use brain.js library. The library uses WebGL (through the GPU.js library) to perform GPU-accelerated operations, which means it works in both web browsers and Node.js environments. Since WebGL is platform-independent, you can use GPU acceleration on various operating systems, including Windows, macOS, and Linux.

Adding brain.js SmartWeave extension

We will need to create a separate extension for the brain.js.

export class BrainJsPlugin {
process(input) {
input.LSTMTimeStep = brain.recurrent.LSTMTimeStep;

type() {
return 'smartweave-extension-brain';

We're attaching only the LSTMTimeStep neural network, which should be well suited for our task of predicting price.
A quick introduction by GPT-4 is attached in the Appendix.

We now need to attach the new plugin to the Warp instance:

const warp = WarpFactory.forMainnet()
.use(new RedStonePlugin())
.use(new BrainJsPlugin());

Initializing the neural network

Let's create a separate function that will create our neural network:

function createNetwork() {
return new SmartWeave.extensions.LSTMTimeStep({
inputSize: 1,
hiddenLayers: [10, 10],
outputSize: 1,

This network has a single input and output and is using two hidden layers (you watched the introductory video from Prerequisites, did you?), each with 10 nodes/neurons. Feel free to experiment with different values.

With the above function - let's return to implementing the doTrain function.

Prepare the input data

Our network will perform best if the input data will be normalized into values within [0, 1] range. We will use a simple Min-Max normalization function.

function normalize(value, min, max) {
if (min === max || min > max) {
throw new ContractError("Invalid range: min and max must be different and min must be smaller than max.");
return (value - min) / (max - min);

function denormalize(value, min, max) {
return value * (max - min) + min;

Additionally - training on the price differences can be a good idea, as it focuses on the changes in prices rather than their absolute values. So let's create additional function, that will calculate the price diffs:

function calculateDiffs(prices) {
return prices.slice(1).map((price, index) => price - prices[index]);

Having these building blocks - we can now finally write our function that will prepare the data for our neural network:

function preparePrices(prices) {
// calculate price diffs
const priceDiffs = calculateDiffs(prices);
const minDiff = Math.min(...priceDiffs);
const maxDiff = Math.max(...priceDiffs);

// normalize prices diffs into [0, 1] range
const normalizedDiffs = priceDiffs
.map(d => normalize(d, minDiff, maxDiff));

return {

Training the network

With the price diffs calculated and normalized, we can finally feed them to our network.

net.train([normalizedDiffs], {
iterations: 2000,
log: (stats) => logger.debug(stats),
errorThresh: 0.005,

After training the network, we store its model in contract's state:

state.serializedModel = net.toJSON();

The full doTrain function:

function doTrain(state) {
// intialized LSTM TimeStep neural network
const net = createNetwork();

// if network model is available - read it from json
if (state.serializedModel) {
}'toTrain', state.toTrain);

// in order to properly calculate price diffs for all the new values - add
// one value from previous trainging set.
let firstElementAdded = false;
if (state.trainedData?.length) {
// get last element (if available) from already trained data to properly calculate
// the diff for the first element of the new data
state.toTrain = [state.trainedData[state.trainedData.length - 1], ...state.toTrain];
firstElementAdded = true;

// calulate prices diffs and normalize them into [0,1] range
const {normalizedDiffs} = preparePrices( => p.v));

// train the network
net.train([normalizedDiffs], {
iterations: 2000,
log: (stats) => console.log(stats),
errorThresh: 0.005

// store network model in contract state
state.serializedModel = net.toJSON();
if (firstElementAdded) {

// clear the array that contains data for training
state.toTrain = [];

With the model being trained, we can now try to forecast the future prices.