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Warp Sequencer - legacy


Please note, that you are viewing old Warp Sequencer docs. Since warp-contracts@1.4.13 nested bundles have been introduced instead of the format described in this file. In order to read about current interaction format, please head to Warp Sequencer.

Warp Sequencer is a module that is responsible for submitting users' transactions into Arweave (via Bundlr Network). During the process, the transactions are indexed in Warp Gateway. This makes them instantly available for further processing (e.g. state evaluation) - unlike in traditional processing, where user has to wait several minutes for transaction mining and confirmation.

Additionally, the Warp Sequencer does not require users to have any cryptocurrencies (AR, ETH, etc.) on their wallets.


The idea behind Warp Sequencer is to increase the Developer and User Experience. Normally, when an interaction with a contract is being sent to Arweave, one has to wait some time:

  1. for the transaction mining (~2 minutes)
  2. for the proper transaction confirmation (assuming at least 10 blocks - ~20 minutes).

This in total gives ~20-25 minutes, which:

  1. Breaks the DX, e.g. in case developer wants to quickly test the contract's functions on mainnet
  2. Breaks the UX, e.g. - each user of a given dApp/protocol must wait really long to see the effect of an interaction with a contract. This makes the applications effectively unusable - especially for users coming from the web2.

Additionally, any interaction with contract requires some amount of ARs in the wallet - which might further increase the entry barrier, both for developers and given protocol/dApp users.

NOTE Waiting for a proper confirmation is especially important (though often overlooked) in case of a smart contract interactions.
Imagine a cache, that is evaluating the contracts state for all the interactions returned at any given time by the default Arweave ( gateway.
If the cache does not wait for the proper transactions' confirmation, it may happen that it will store a contract state evaluated from the transactions from a forked blocks (or - even worse - from transactions that were not included in any block).

Advantages of using Warp Sequencer for interactions posting

  1. Interaction is near-instantly available - as soon as proper response from Bundlr network is received.
  2. Posting interactions with contract does not require any ARs - the deployment via Bundlr network is either fully subsidized by the Arweave (for transactions <= 100KiB) or by the Warp (for transactions > 100KiB). The max transaction size is currently 2MiB.
    Most of the contracts' interactions have the "default" 4B size.
  3. Even though the Bundlr transactions are created and signed by the Warp's wallet, it is still possible to identify the original transaction owner/signer.
    NOTE This is especially important in case of smart contracts - as contracts' business logic very often is dependent on who (i.e. what wallet address) is interacting with the contract.
  4. The option to use VRF in contracts that require verifiable randomness.
  5. Even if the Warp infra will go down, all the contract interactions can be still retrieved directly from Arweave, using a simple GQL query.

How it works

Instead of posting the interaction transactions directly to Arweave mainnet, they are sent to Warp Sequencer (/gateway/sequencer/register endpoint) (this is the default behaviour of Warp's SDK contract.writeInteraction function, when forMainnet instance is being used).

The Warp Sequencer then:

1. Generates a sort key

A sort key is generated from:

  1. current mainnet network height
  2. current sequence value
  3. original transaction id
  4. current mainnet block hash

In the original SmartWeave protocol specification, a sort key is defined as a [ block_height,sha256(transactionId + blockHash) ], where:

  1. block_height - current network height, l-padded with 0 to 12 chars, e.g. for block height 1015556, the result is 000001015556
  2. sha256(transactionId + blockHash) - a sha256 hash of the concatenated buffers of the transaction id and block hash, e.g. for txId UR_35HORbjjZ_NnUqinkZuWkcNB1-gBST3Rezt5JrDs and block hash ixWCxRN36DjVUxQRa68xIeoZLfvLDTtX78e0ae8RAAJjOPpDBuVKVaEKYOpq7bLS, the result is 44edd70f2018924f22a878a558a8f2d5cae8bc1f718d567df43bf52b6384d260.

The complete sort key for the above values would be: 000001015556,44edd70f2018924f22a878a558a8f2d5cae8bc1f718d567df43bf52b6384d260.

The generated sort keys are then used by the SmartWeave protocol to lexicographically sort the transactions.

The Warp Sequencer extends this default mechanism by the current sequence value.
The formula for the sort key is extended to: [ block_height,sequence_value,sha256(transactionId + blockHash) ]

This sequence value can be obtained from the Sequencer's node timestamp, database or other sources. In its current implementation - a Sequencer node timestamp value is being used.
This in effect gives a fair transactions ordering - the transactions will have the sequence assigned in order in which they are processed by the Sequencer.

Assuming transaction id La_NpAFAWxGj-VIiLfg7NbBfox0RZ8uuEJSOOZykd48, block hash -o88tFYsMG9RXSGcNXX5sVDuSV5uHy7zuFRj6vYo91e3mXpmng6qw322Ip0-EguA, block height 1015560 and current Sequencer value 1663069424541, the generated sort key would be 000001015560,1663069424541,a21ac8a60326ba8c2bb8caa05cff3334a22e9960ef55de0b5392caa30b484d0a

NOTE All the transactions sent to Arweave directly, have the sequence value assigned to 0000000000000000. This effectively means that if transactions to a given contract are sent both directly to Arweave mainnet and Warp Sequencer - if two transactions happen to be at the same block height, the "direct" Arweave transactions take precedence. This also means that the sequencing algorithm is fully backwards compatible with the original SmartWeave protocol.

2. Generates tags for the Bundlr transaction

Tag NameTag Value
Sequencer-OwnerThe original owner/signar of the contract transaction
Sequencer-MillsThe sequence value used by the Sequencer for this transaction
Sequencer-Sort-KeyThe generated sort key for this transaction
Sequencer-Last-Sort-KeyThe sort key of the previous transaction
Sequencer-Tx-IdThe original transaction id
Sequencer-Block-HeightThe block height used for generating the sort key
Sequencer-Block-IdThe block hash used for generating the sort key
Sequencer-Block-TimestampThe timestamp of the block that was used for generating the sort key
...all the tags of the original transaction

The Sequencer-Last-Sort-Key tells what is the sort key of the 'previous' transaction in the sequencer and can be used to verify whether all transactions have been properly loaded (i.e. if one decides to load them directly from L1 nodes) and none is missing.

Additional set of tags are added in case user requests generating a random value using VRF (Verifiable Random Function):

Tag NameTag Value
vrf-indexThe original hash generated by the VRF (using sort_key as input data)
vrf-proofThe original proof generated by the VRF
vrf-bigintA BigInt value evaluated from the hash generated by the VRF
vrf-pubkeyThe public key used by the VRF

Verifiable randomness can be used by contracts that require using random values - e.g. gaming contracts, nft/loot generating contracts, etc. Using the sort_key, vrf-proof and vrf-pubkey, the client can always verify the generated random value.

3. Uploads the original transaction to Bundlr

..with tags generated in point 2.


Obviously the data-item is signed by the Sequencer's wallet - and as such can be easily verified. The Sequencer wallet address is jnioZFibZSCcV8o-HkBXYPYEYNib4tqfexP0kCBXX_M.

NOTE The original transaction is not modified in any way - this is to preserve the original signature!

After receiving proper response and receipt from Bundlr, the Warp gateway indexes the contract interaction internally - to make it instantly available.

4. Finally, the Warp gateway returns the response from the Bundlr to the client.

Contract transaction retrieval (generated by the Warp Sequencer) via Arweave gateway

Use the GQL endpoint, with the original contract tx id passed in the Contract tag. Note that all the interactions will be part of a bundle (i.e. will have the value set).

query {
tags: [
{name: "App-Name", values: ["SmartWeaveAction"]},
{name: "Contract", values: ["KT45jaf8n9UwgkEareWxPgLJk4oMWpI5NODgYVIF1fY"]},
{name: "Sequencer", values: ["RedStone"]}
) {
edges {
node {
tags {
block {
bundledIn {

Contract transaction retrieval via Warp gateway

The Warp /gateway/v2/interactions-sort-key endpoint allows to retrieve all the given contract interactions currently indexed by the Warp Gateway - both the direct Arweave transactions and Warp Sequencer transactions. This method is used by default by the Warp SDK - in case of forMainnet instance is being used.

Further development

  1. Blind/trustless sequencing -
  2. Sequencer decentralization -